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NEW FORCES IN THE WORLD'S LIFE         87

with dissolution. This is a proof that the natural
unification of humanity is unattainable: such
unity can be attained only spiritually. The unity
of mankind is " God-in-manity."

Nationalism turns nationality into a supreme
and absolute value to which all life is subordin-
ated. This is idolatry. The nation replaces God*
Thus Nationalism cannot but come into conflict
with Christian universalism, with the Christian re-
velation that there is neither Greek nor Jew, and
that every man has absolute value. Nationalism
uses everything as its own instrument, as an in-
strument of national power and prosperity. For
Nationalism, religion and the church are purely
national-historic categories. A Russian should
be Orthodox not because that is the true faith,
but because orthodoxy has been an historic-
national force, it participated in the development
of the Russian state and Russian culture. In
the same way a Pole should be Catholic, a
German Lutheran, an Englishman Anglican, just
as a Turk should be Mohammedan. National-
ism leads directly to polytheism, to pagan par-
ticularism. During the war we saw how the
German God, the Russian God, the French and
English Gods were at war with each other.
Nationalism cannot accept universal religious
truth: in its consciousness religion remains at
the pre-Christian level, the stage of Judaism*